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Inflation projection for 2022 varies from 5.60% to 5.61%

The financial market forecast for the Broad National Consumer Price Index (IPCA), considering the country’s official inflation, had a positive change from 5.60% to 5.61% for this year. It is the first increase in the forecast, after 17 consecutive weeks of reduction.Inflation projection for 2022 varies from 5.60% to 5.61%

The estimate appears in today’s Focus Bulletin (31), a survey released weekly by the Central Bank (BC), in Brasília, with financial institutions’ expectations for the main economic indicators.

For 2023, the inflation projection was 4.94%. For 2024 and 2025, inflation forecasts are at 3.50% and 3%, respectively.

The estimate for 2022 is above the ceiling of the inflation target that must be pursued by the BC. The target, defined by the National Monetary Council, is 3.5% for this year, with a tolerance interval of 1.5 percentage points up or down. That is, the lower limit is 2% and the upper limit is 5%.

In September, there was deflation of 0.29%, the third consecutive month of decline in the indicator. As a result, the IPCA accumulates an increase of 4.09% in the year and 7.17% in 12 months, according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE).

Interest rate

To achieve the inflation target, the Central Bank uses the basic interest rate, the Selic, as its main instrument, defined at 13.75% per year by the Monetary Policy Committee (Copom). The rate is at the highest level since January 2017, when it was also at that level.

For the financial market, the expectation is that the Selic rate ends the year at the same 13.75%. By the end of 2023, the estimate is that the base rate will fall to 11.25% per year. For 2024 and 2025, the forecast is for Selic at 8% per year and 7.75% per year, respectively.

When the Copom increases the basic interest rate, the purpose is to contain the heated demand, and this has an impact on prices because higher interest rates make credit more expensive and encourage savings. Thus, higher rates can also make it more difficult for the economy to expand. In addition to the Selic, banks consider other factors when defining the interest charged to consumers, such as default risk, profit and administrative expenses.

When the Copom lowers the Selic rate, the tendency is for credit to become cheaper, encouraging production and consumption, reducing control over inflation and stimulating economic activity.

GDP and exchange rate

The projection of financial institutions for the growth of the Brazilian economy this year remains at 2.76%. For 2023, the expectation for the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – the sum of all goods and services produced in the country – is a growth of 0.64%. For 2024 and 2025, the financial market projects GDP growth of 1.8% and 2%, respectively.

The expectation for the dollar rate remained at R$ 5.20 for the end of this year. For the end of 2023, the forecast is that the American currency will remain at this same level.

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